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Cave City Bakla

In the Middle Ages, in the era of invasions of the nomads, the Crimean highlands became the main habitats of the settled Crimean population. This was the basis for the emergence and flourishing of the "cave cities, fortresses, monasteries, located on the picturesque hills of Inner Ridge of Crimean Mountains. Cave City Mangup Kale, Eski-Kerman, Chufut-Calais, Buckley, Tepe-Kerman, Kiz-Kerman, Kalamita for bringing this to our own days, a medieval appearance because not been distorted by later buildings. For residents in their time just left them, migrating to the valley, more comfortable life.

City Bakla (Bean) is located in 2,5 km to the north of the village of Rocky Bakhchissaray district. His area of about 1 ha. It is situated at an altitude of 470 m above sea level, on a flat terrace at the foot of Buckley, in a peculiar triangle, bounded on the west and east, limestone ridges, and from the south - a cliff plateau up to 12 m. The topography mound consists of two parts - the citadel and the adjacent tenements.

On the whole surface of the plateau, are clearly visible characteristic bumps - traces of numerous terrestrial structures. Cave structures have largely economic value. Stored in their stocks of food, contain the animals. This is eloquently illustrated numerous cuttings: Deepening to install pithoi (large jars), engraved ring-shaped holes for tying cattle trough nurseries, etc. In many places around the outside of the caves gouged into the rock chute to drain sewage. The edges of cliffs above the caves are carved into the rock groups of grain pits and for the winepress grapes with sumps wort. Carved in the rocks and the church, which at the time of enemy invasion were included in the defense system.

As a result of excavations Baklinskogo burial studied more than 800 funerary structures, mainly crypts in which were buried from 4 to 9 century AD In Bakhchissaray museum shows things from the burial ground: the magnificent bronze buckles of various forms, fibulae (clasps), rings, crosses, utensils made of ceramics and glass.

populated district-Sarmatian Alans, partially - the Goths, were engaged in viticulture and agriculture.

Initially, in IV - VI in the first half. here is a small agricultural settlement, specialized in the production of wine. As evidenced by the numerous remnants of cut into the rock tank tarapanov, septic tanks. In the second half of VI. part of the settlement was surrounded defensive wall and turns into a small shelter.

the western outskirts of Buckley, on the hill near the cliff are the remains of a large church. Here lies the crypt, carved into the rock. The complex is located on two levels - the lower terrace, which were a church with a burial ground facilities, and the upper chapel. Originally the terrace were constructed rock vaults. About X-XI centuries. Ground built a temple, around which were committed grave in plitovyh graves. At the end of XI-XIII centuries. on the upper terrace is cut down rock chapel. Above the church complex in suburban hanging ledge of rock that resembles a large human head, placed the cave Christian church (in the spring of 1998 he collapsed from natural causes).

east of this complex on the surface of the plateau in some places is still possible to distinguish the streets and alleys branching off from them. Here and there traces of buildings. Houses were built of stone. Posada was densely built up. Private estates, mostly two-story and consisted of 2-4 rooms, or adjacent to each other, or separated lanes. Between streets blocks away.

At settlement known for more than 90 cave structures, most of them had an economic purpose. In addition, burial and religious facilities. Currently, Buckley and its surroundings revealed eight partially studied Christian religious complexes, mainly X-XIII centuries. One of the alleged temple was excavated DL Talisa on the tenements, in the 12 meters of the defensive wall. Not far away, in 40 meters to the east of the citadel, in 2003 opened the temple IX-XIII centuries. To the north-east of the latter in the cave there is a niche with a Greek inscription. Three more churches are located in the valley, 600 meters south of Buckley.

Buckley is well known in the neighborhood several mounds of different ages. In particular, south of the mound, in gully ravine is a bad early medieval necropolis, and 2 km west of Buckley was now fully researched Skalistinsky burial.

core of the settlement was a small fortification was built in the VI. It stands out well in the rocky ledge through the thickets that cover the ruins of buildings. On three sides, this citadel was surrounded by a fence walls built of hewn limestone blocks. Over the life of the citadel mound several times rebuilt. Last defenses were repaired after a heavy fire, presumably, with the attack of the Tatar hordes Emir Nogaya at 1299g.

In the northern corner of the citadel found the remains of a rectangular gate tower. South-eastern flank of the battle ends at the cliff walls on the edge of which was building, closes the defense, tower or ground fighting with the parapet. This fenced area was built up pretty thick. Here are found the remains of two houses, one of which consisted of eight rooms and had two floors. Lower, non-residential, going deep into the rock on the surface of which bears a felling for timber poles and receptacles. Available here and a small temple with an altar conch - apse.

outskirts of the settlement is the grotto Shaitan Koba (Devil's Cave), where archaeologists have unearthed about 25,000 silicon shells and animal bones on which the Neanderthals hunted. On the side of the highway is visible protection of the mark.


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