Six kilometers from Yalta, near the village of Nikita is one of the landmarks of Crimea - Nikita Botanical Garden.
This is a real green treasure of the country in which the plants collected from different parts of the planet. But the garden is not only a beautiful park, a living museum of nature - is one of the oldest research institutions, which are more than 28000 species, varieties and hybrids of various plants.
After the Crimea to Russia began developing land on the southern coast. Palaces and villas surrounded by new owners of parks and gardens. Grigory Potemkin first tried to create a botanical garden on the European model, for this he ordered the seeds of overseas plants and landed on his estates. But private botanical gardens often changed its owners, needed a state, or, as we used to say, "official", a botanical garden. Its goals were to: gather the best and most fertile trees, shrubs and grasses that yield income or serve as a decoration of parks to plant fruit plantations, oil and other plants that can grow in warm climates Tauris, and distribute them among the Crimean farmers.
To bookmark the future of the garden took the land around the village of Nikita, based in the Middle Ages the Greeks. Bishop Hermogenes wrote that the settlement was known before Shikita from the Greek word for fig tree, fig tree. "The letter is replaced with the letter N, probably since, as there was the Greek church built in the name of the Holy Great Martyr Nikita. Ecumenical Patriarch Macarius charter in 1390 made an order, someone from the Crimean bishops should be in charge Shikita ».
Lives of Saints is reported that in Gotha Country "was born, baptized and received the education of St. Nikita. He enlightened the light of Christian faith and baptized Gothic bishop Theophilus (died about 340), who took part in the Council of Nicea I (325). After Theophilus in his chair came Urfil (311-383 gg.), Who distinguished himself so that he had invented for preparing a letter and translated from Greek into Gothic Holy Scriptures, and many other books. Through this holy Christian faith spread rapidly among the ready. St. Nikita his piety and divinely inspired words of many people led to Christ.
When hristonenavistnik Afanarih began a new persecution of Christians, St. Nikita made an accusatory speeches, reproaching him for his impiety and inhumanity, for the fact that he betrayed many believers to various torments. Afanarih orders to arrest him and torture, wanting to force the saint Nikita renunciation of Christ. He broke bones in his arms and legs, causing numerous injuries, but failed to break the strong will of the saint. Torturer was wondering: why is it, with all his might, Iokazalsya powerless? Then he decided to destroy the holy fire. But the body of St. Nikita's not burned by the fire, his soul was revived for a new eternal and immortal life. The body of the saint, undamaged by fire, long remained without burial. Student of St. Nikita Marian with the Lord found him and brought to the city Mopsuestiya, where later on the grave of Nikita church was erected.
researcher Christian antiquities Crimea DM Strukov assumed that St. Nikita could live in these places. Ancient church in honor of Saint destroyed the Greeks themselves, when they left the Crimea in 1771. In its place Tatars built a mosque, which is also not preserved.
In 1812 Nikita was laid in a botanical garden. Through the efforts of its first director of the Christian Khristianovich Steven (1781-1863) and the first orchardists in the twelve years were divided into Upper and Lower parks and its unique collection of ornamental plants and valuable herbarium, were introduced new varieties of grapes and fruit trees, based library and museum, X. X. Steven wanted to organize in the Garden School of Horticulture and Viticulture, but did not have time. This school emerged in 1868 through the efforts of the third director of the Garden NE Zabel.
In Nikitsky botanical garden living scientists gardeners, students, workers, and their hospitals and the church was not, had to travel to Yalta. In 1881 the post of director of the garden atonement for Alexander Bazarov (1845-1907). And immediately appealed to higher authorities with a request zamenituzhe developed a draft one-storey new hospital, two-story building which housed a hospital, a church and priest's apartment. In July 1882 it is a building permit and was calculated estimates. AI Bazarov instructed to draft a civil engineer and architect PK Terebenev (1841 -1902).
Land for building near the selected schools. But as it turned out, the limestones are underlain with a focus on the south-west, so the altar had to refocus on the south-east, which has violated several canons of construction of Orthodox churches.
ceremonial laying took place on March 25, 1884, and the feast of the Annunciation. In the presence of scientists, gardeners, students and workers Hermogen His Grace, Bishop Tauric and Simferopol was celebrated the Divine Liturgy.
Construction of the building began a rapid pace, for 1884 carried out the bulk of the work. But due to lack of money building continued throughout 1885 and half of 1886, finishing work completed by August. September 19, 1885 was set a cross, but by the end of the year finished the painting in the altar and on the facade of the building. Simultaneously with the construction of the artist Ephraim Vasiliyevych Guodong ordered 11 icons, which are taken to the temple to January 1, 1885. And the Holy Synod of the Church handed over the future of the book: the Gospel in a velvet cover with gold stamping and with clasps, the Apostle, Irmologion simple Kanonnik, Mineia monthly and others, with 17 titles.
Church consecrated February 5, 1887 Abbot Epiphanius Archimandrite Livadia churches in the name of the Transfiguration of the Lord.
19 August church celebrates the feast of the Transfiguration of the Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ. This event is described in the New Testament. At the end of the path of earthly life, Jesus Christ gave his disciples that he had to suffer, to die on the cross and resurrection. With three apostles - Peter, John and James - He stood at Mount Tabor and prayed. During the prayers of his disciples fell asleep and when awake, were impressed with transformation occurring with the Lord: His face shone with an unearthly light, clothing became dazzling white. Two Old Testament prophets: Moses and Elijah were talking with him. Suddenly a voice from heaven, God the Father: "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased" (Mt 17, 5). Stunned
apostles looked at teachers, unable to utter a word. But the vision continued long: Light is lost, and Jesus standing on a mountain top.
Transfiguration on Mount Tabor, the Lord Jesus Christ has decided to strengthen the faith of His disciples to Him, that they do not lose heart at the time of His coming suffering and death on the cross.
The first rector of the church and with God's law teacher at the school became the father of Joe Smith. Director of the Garden LI Bazarov applied for the introduction of the staff positions cantor, which would have been a teacher of choral singing. I must say that the director was presenting the priests special requirements: they must either have an academic education, as Father Sergius Lileev or be a good pastor, a faithful servant of the Church, as the father of Nicholas Akulin.
constructed building is a spacious nave basilica, with the north-west side it is adjacent to the lobby, which is located inside staircase leading to the second floor, in the church. On the first floor of the hospital arranged, and the priest was attached to a flat wall of the altar in the form of single-storey ledge of a balcony. In general plan of the building was an elongated, four-cross. Above the front porch, leading into the lobby, situated a small bell tower with a gable roof and a cross crowning Glaucus-domes. Above the lobby on a drum, decorated with innovative features, stood a small dome with eight-pointed cross. Large arched windows were decorated with stone casings of the broad rays, ending with the two sides carved in stone ravnokonechnymi crosses. Between the windows were constructed shallow niches, which were patterned cast-iron crosses, one of them discovered in 1993, when the walls of the building were released from the luxuriant ivy.
Within the walls of the lobby on the second floor windows cut into smaller sizes, they have decorated aprons, innovative features, and on the ground floor - rectangular windows with casings of alternating brick and white rays. On both sides of the entrance to the shallow bays on the frescoes depicted patterned Byzantine crosses, and the entrance to the circle - ravnokonechny cross.
the summer of 1887 the tower raised two bells made in the foundry ND Finland in Moscow.
Despite the remoteness of Nikita church from the central cities of the Crimea, and especially from the capital, it performed prayers to all the significant dates in the life of the Imperial family and the history of the state. Here they prayed for the health of the Emperor, for the salvation of Russian soldiers and aid them in battles during the conduct of war, the strengthening of the power of Russia. Nikita was the church has an important role in the celebrations on the occasion of the centennial of the Garden in 1912. Church Pastor Father Roman Krylov consecrated this momentous event. September 20, 1912 in the church served the Divine Liturgy, after which all present procession went to the Lower Park, where on the ground in front of the greenhouse made public prayer, proclaiming mnogoletie Emperor Nicholas II and his entire family, the officials and all employees and students in the garden, and and eternal memory of Emperor Alexander I, Nicholas I, Alexander II and Alexander III, all pochivshim persons who have served and labored for the benefit of the Garden. Father Roman received the award in the Order of St Anne III degree.
After the revolutionary events in Nikitsky botanical garden has been a change, in February 1921 it was transformed into State Farm Nikita Botanical Garden. In the temple of worship were committed before 1920. Then the congregation established Orthodox religious society and appealed to local authorities to hand them the church free of charge. Under the contract they were required to contain themselves, repair, heating the church, to keep all church property. Priest in the church at that time was already gone, so its obligation to comply with worker Innocent Chernyakov.
But in the late 20-ies a state with a new force took up arms against the church and church of the Transfiguration in Nikita was closed in September 1927. The building is trying to change it, change its appearance: destroyed the dome and bell tower, dropping crosses and bells. But Face Vernicle over the entrance was removed by one of the believers upside down face to the cross, closed tin and colored in the color of the wall.
For many years the building was used as a warehouse, shop, science lab, a cultural center with theater in the former church. Not preserved, no internal painting, or iconostasis, or icon. A beautiful room with large windows and good acoustics turned into a dark room: the windows, reduced the height of the ceiling artificial plates, which absorb all the sounds. External walls thickly plaited Crimean ivy. When the 80 years the building was destroyed, it was turned into a warehouse, which was taken to just junk. Already, few remembered that there was once a temple.
In 1991, residents of Nikita organized community of Holy Transfiguration Ukrainian Orthodox Church Moscow Patriarchate. They concluded with the Nikita Botanical Gardens into a lease for the building of the former hospital and church and began repairs. Total for the month to August 19, 1992 resulted in the order of a large hall on the ground floor. On this festive day of the Transfiguration of the Lord in front of committed prayer and consecrated the building. From that day on the first floor were the icons near which burn candles, there could pray, order of prayers for good health or repose of the neighbors, buy crosses, icons and divine literature. Father Victor Evsyutin appointed rector of the church Nikita December 11, 1992, he served on Sundays, pray, baptize, marry, confessed to the congregation, funeral of the deceased.
April 7, 1993 consecrated the throne of the altar and served the first Divine Liturgy. But the parishioners and the priest tried to quickly restore the iconostasis. Above the temple set up a cross, again built a bell tower, which raised the bell. At the feast day August 19, 1995 Divine Liturgy in the church the Reverend Lazarus, Archbishop of Simferopol and Crimea. It was revived another Crimean temple, and we remembered another page in our history.