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Exaltation of the Cross Church in Livadia

Just a few kilometers from Yalta is one of the most famous places in the Crimea: holiday village Livadia.

Each year it is visited by thousands of people to see the Livadia Palace - the summer residence of Russian tsars. During the excursion visitors must show the palace church, which prayed for three generations of emperors: Alexander II, Alexander III and Nicholas II.

In 1860, the specific department bought the estate of Count Potocki LS for the construction of this palace. Emperor Alexander II gave Livadia his wife Empress Maria Feodorovna, who was ill with tuberculosis and was treated annually in the south. Court architect Hippolyte Monigetti (1819-1878) commissioned to build a whole architectural complex: two palaces, offices, greenhouses, swimming pools and, of course, the palace church. The church was remodeled in 1864 by the architect of the church, so the altar is focused not on the east, as in all Orthodox churches, and to the south.

Monigetti established church in the Byzantine style, modeled on the ancient Greek Church of St. Luke, built sometime in the village of Livadia in Greece. The temple is small, because it was designed only for the imperial family and inner circle. In terms of building a cross, extending from north to south. Above the dome of the church stood on a slender light drum. Later it was dismantled, and now we see a new small drum, topped by a cross. The eastern wall is cut through arched windows and paired triple. Monigetti used in the design of the temple ornament in the style of architecture of Transcaucasia. The Church is decorated with carved trim around the windows and a broad band under the roof.

interior of the church was created as in the Byzantine style by the artist Izello on drawings Monighetti. Icons for the church wrote the famous artist Academician Alexei Ye Beideman. For his work he was awarded the Order of St. Stanislaus 2nd degree. A special decoration of the church became an iconostasis of white marble. Royal Doors and the sanctuary doors were made of carved bronze.

on both sides of the iconostasis there were two walnut lectern: one was occupied by an icon of the temple, another ancient way with parts of the holy relics, he was decorated with precious stones. This image - the gift of the Romanovs from the Georgian kings. Before the iconostasis were beautiful silver candlesticks.

vault of the church was painted in blue and studded with gold stars, symbolizing the upper sky. Since the middle of a set down a small chandelier. A small door led from the church to the sacristy, and thence to the office of Emperor Alexander III.

At the request of Empress Maria Alexandrovna, the church was consecrated in honor of one of the most revered festivals of the Exaltation of the honest and Holy Cross. Church historian describes the event.

Byzantine Emperor Constantine, in gratitude to God for approval of the Church, I settled on the Ecumenical Council, wished to build a temple on Calvary. Constantine's mother Helena in 326 went to Jerusalem in search of the Cross. At the direction of an old Jew, the cross was found, but with him and the other two crosses. To find just the one on which Jesus Christ was crucified, all the crosses brought to the sick woman's bedside. Touching two crosses did not produce any effect, but the touch of a third patient was a cross miraculously healed. Then the cross laid on the dying, and he was resurrected. To Cross glass is the number of people that for everyone to see it, the patriarch was on higher ground and raised a fair cross, showing it, and all the people in joyful ecstasy exclaimed: "Lord have mercy." At the place where was found a cross of the Lord build the house, and in the days of his consecration has been established holiday and Exaltation Holy Cross Church. This holiday Church celebrates on Sept. 27.

next to the temple on the draft DI Grimm built a belfry, it is decorated with ornaments, which is carved out of stone talented peasant Orel province TA Kostikov. During the reign of Alexander III immediately placed a marble column from the fortress on the Danube Ruschuk.

This column was established near the palace in 1879 in memory of the Russian-Turkish campaigns (1877-1878) period, when Russia was fighting for the liberation of Bulgaria from the Turkish yoke.

Rain moisture got into the house through the roof and worn spoiled Home icon "Exaltation of the precious cross. It was decided to replace it with mosaics, a material more durable than paint, and keep their bright colors. Execute the work assigned company A. Salviati, Academician Alexander Popov made for Salviati exact copy of the icon on the cardboard. The works were completed on time in 1888. This mosaic icon until today.

In redesigning the palace in 1910-1911 by architect N. Krasnov preserved the church, with some small modifications. He increased the chapel, lodged entrance. Continue to include shows at the half-open gallery, connecting the temple to the palace. Krasnov turned this gallery in a fully enclosed. Portal of the temple was adorned with a mosaic icon of the Archangel Gabriel. She performed in the studio of Professor P. Chistyakov. He also painted a new porch that was among the icons of Theotokos Theodore.

Livadiyskyi Cross church was a house church, are praying members of the royal family. In the church are carefully preserved relics: dear church utensils, holy relics, and the next - a simple icon on the linden board, donated by ordinary peasant king to a housewarming in Livadia.

In Livadia the temple to make important event both for the royal family, and for the whole of Russia. In 1894 in the old palace died, Alexander III. Requiem for the of the late Emperor, and the oath of the new Russian Emperor Nicholas II took place in the palace temple. Here the holy righteous John of Kronstadt anointed the bride Nicholas Princess Alice of Hesse, she became the Orthodox faithful Princess Alexandra Feodorovna. When the ritual was attended by the closest people, among whom was the sister of the future Empress Elizabeth Feodorovna. They both were destined to finish my career in Grozny in 1918.

Sam Nicholas II and his mother, Empress Maria Feodorovna were to hold a wedding ceremony immediately after the anointing. But this was opposed by relatives. They believed that the marriage of the Emperor - an act of national importance and should be realized in the capital with all the usual solemnity of the event. And whether Nicholas II insistent, in a modest Livadia church would have had the new Russian Empress Alexandra Feodorovna.

After the establishment of Soviet power in Livadia opened resort Livadi . Church was closed for long years of neglect are arranged and the club, and warehouse, and the museum premises. In those days, only a mosaic picture of the Archangel Gabriel over the main entrance and standing next to an elegant belfry reminded of that once there was a house of God.

not preserved in the iconostasis of the church and marble tiles on the walls, instead panels painted with oil paint under gray marble. Only the mosaic on the theme of the Exaltation of the Cross of the Lord shone unfading light which gives us hope that will revive and beautify the temple again. So it happened.

In 1991, the Exaltation of the Cross Church Worship resumed. Of course, the revival of the church was slow: the iconostasis was first plywood, then came the oak lectern, which reproduced the carving of the marble frame of the old doors. Left and right of the restored altar stood carved oak reliquaries for the main icons: Theotokos the "ruling" and St. John of Kronstadt.

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