Particularly complex and interesting history of an ancient mosque in it now a museum, the exhibition which explores the history of Sudak and the Genoese fortress. The building is located in the eastern part of the citadel, for it is the wide road from the gate. On his appointment as historians are divided. According to one version, it was built by the Turks, the Seljuks in 1222 as a mosque, and then was destroyed and again rebuilt as a Greek Orthodox church, when the masters of the fortress became the Genoese, they settle here, the Catholic Church. And after taking Sudak Turks in 1475 the temple once again turns into a mosque. According to another version, the Genoese have used this building for the consular hall - a kind of public offices.
It is known that the structure of local gray-white limestone was erected in the XIII century and rebuilt several times, on closer inspection one can distinguish four from various masonry. The building is rectangular in plan (14,34 m x 13,87 m), the walls and roof are connected to each other toothed corrugation. The central part is covered with a large hemispherical dome without the drum. From the south it was attached to the open gallery, formed by an arcade (which is why some researchers call it the "Temple of the arcade). But two subsequent flips walled gallery opening, we got the private porch. Windows and doors in the middle of the room are decorated with carved aprons with a magnificent carving in the form of plaiting.
Inside the building the remains stairs that once led up to the minaret. In the south wall is a prayer niche - mihrab, it adorns the oriental ornament. Above the niche of the inscription in Latin: "In the name of Christ, amen. In 1423, the fourth day of January, it ordered the building to do ... Consul Talano Cristiano Mondial." Near emblem, which depicts the towers. With restoration under a layer of lime were discovered medieval frescoes, one of them was a picture of St. Nicholas.
After joining the Crimea to Russia in 1783 in Sudak fortress housed the Russian garrison - Kirillov Novgorod Regiment, part of the Don Cossack Army. It built barracks, set up the office, a guard. The former mosque was turned into an Orthodox church and consecrated in the name of the Apostle and Evangelist Matthew.
Holy Apostle and Evangelist Matthew was a publican, ie, tax collector for Rome. Hearing the call of Christ to follow him, he left his post and went for the Savior. St. Matthew listened to the teachings of Jesus Christ, witnessed His miracles, death on the cross and resurrection. After Pentecost, he first preached in Palestine, Syria, Media, Persia, Parthia. Apostle Matthew is the author of the Gospel, in which he described the earthly life and teachings of Jesus Christ. The Gospel of Matthew written about 42 years. Memory of the Apostle and Evangelist Matthew honors on Nov. 29.
After the departure of the garrison of the fortress the church was abandoned. But the land in Sudak Valley have been sold or donated to numerous Russian landowners themselves they did not live here permanently, allowing you to engage in breeding and cultivation of vineyards Tatars. But in the summer, collecting the grapes all came together for the rest and sell crops. Church is in Sudak was not, the nearest Orthodox Church is located 40 miles away, so they decided to revive the service Matfeevskoy Garrison Church, but on Dec. 27, 1810 it was forced to close due to the dilapidated state. Church repaired and reopened in 1813. But the church is gradually destroyed: in the walls of cracks in the vault - a hole in the building had no windows, the Board of Spiritual Consistory inspected the temple and decided that to hold services in it is dangerous for the parishioners, so the decree of 14 April 1817 the temple was closed for good. < / p>
In 1867 Perch visited the Empress Maria Alexandrovna, she visited the ruins of the castle and ordered to clean the ancient mosque from garbage, and then close.
years passed. Sudak gradually grew, the Orthodox population became larger, and the construction of a new temple has been delayed. In 1883 once again raised the question of restoration of ancient buildings at Castle Hill. Initiator was Nikiforovich Nikolai Markevich, vice president of the Odessa Imperial Society of History and Antiquities. The temple was restored on donations from parishioners, the work carried out in just four months. Well-known artist-Cimmerian professor of the Academy of Fine Arts L. f.. Lagorio was invited to design the church. His hand belongs to the image of Our Lady of Sorrow. October 2, 1883 renewed the church was consecrated.