cave city Kalamita - a medieval fortress in the Crimea. Located on a cliff at the mouth of river. Black, near Sebastopol.
special sanctity Kalamita explained by a legend about the fact that here the Emperor Trajan (98-117) was exiled Pope Clement. In exile, Clemens was active, with hundreds of people drawn to Christianity, for which the decree of the emperor to the Holy tied an anchor around his neck, and he was drowned in the sea about 101 g.
When Cyril and Methodius arrived in Chersonese , they began to ask about the relics of St. Clement, and found them about 868 years. Part of the relics of the Enlightenment took in Rome, where he presented them to Pope Adrian II, who put them in the basilica of St. Clement (where they are stored until now). Saint's head left in the Chersonese, which took nearly 988 years in Kiev Prince Vladimir, and placed it in the Tithe church, first established. Now in Inkerman is valid St. Clement Monastery .
To look at the shrine - a fountain, which St. Clement made the score for two thousand languishing masons - must pass through the arch in the park, which is also a cemetery with tombstones of the XIX century. Today the fountain is dry due to mining. A fountain in its present form was erected in the XIX century.
was long thought that the fortress was founded in 1427 the rulers of the principality of Theodoro, as reported on building inscription mentioning the name of Prince Alexei, found at the beginning of XIX century. However, after the excavation of the 1950's, archaeologists concluded that the first fortifications were built as early as VI-VII centuries.
In XV century the principality of Theodoro tore the sea. Construction of the city on the shore of the best in the Crimea, the bay, and even under the noses of the Genoese controlled the remnants Chersonese and the fortress Cembalo - it was a success. The word "Kalamita" translates from Greek as "Good Landing".
Fortress, embarked on a cliff above the bay, was a cover port Avlita. Port is jointly administered by the Crimean Khanate and Theodoro, and the volume of trade amounted to compete with the Genoa Cafe. Open military clash in 1433 unleashed themselves Theodoret: to gather strength in Calama, they captured the Genoa fortress Cembalo . In response, Genoa has taken unprecedented large-scale military action, repulsed Cembalo and besieged Kalamita. Defenders Kalamita prefer the night away to the mountains, and the Italians went to an empty fortress. Encouraged by the success, Genoa attacked ally the principality of Theodoro - Crimean Khanate, but in the battle with the forces of Haji Giray suffered a crushing defeat, and then returned to Theodoret Kalamita.
In 1475 Turkish troops had no difficulty zahvatyvatit city, which is called since Inkerman ( "John" - turkish "cave"). At the end of the beginning of the XVI-XVII century. Turks reconstructed fort. After the Treaty of Küçük Kainarji in 1774 the fortress lost its meaning and collapsed.
passed through the monastery cemetery, you will find yourself on the plateau. Builders of the fortress wall, cut off the only part of the plateau, only protect the side that did not protect nature. The main tower I is an ancient road, hacked into the rock, with deep ruts left by wagons.
main tower I survived to this day not bad, it was the main gate of the Turkish Kalamita time. At the time of Theodoro were more gates, covered with the Turks. The Turks strongly that part of the rebuilt tower that looks toward the fortress.
Located near Tower II is also strongly affected by the surgery. Initially it was polubashney, and the outside itself and stayed. From the same strength today, when the masonry crashed, perfectly visible to a powerful shell, fastened by the Turks, has turned polubashnyu to complete the tower. Two loopholes so much narrower outside that they become almost invisible.
Once Tower III was the key square polubashney in the defense system. Today it remains only a skeleton, is now a staircase leading nowhere. The tower was composed of hewn blocks, the same technique can be seen in the original buildings on Feodoritov Mangup.
Tower IV passed the line of walls and stood in the proteyhizmy, which stretched across the ditch. Together with a moat, casemates cave in the ditch and proteyhizmoy Tower IV is not unparalleled engineering solution, which the Turks do not appreciate. They destroyed proteyhizmu, and strengthened the tower itself.
Tower V - key installations, here are open to the ancient gates of the fortress, which today represent the depth in the ground through the gate. It is seen that the construction of its towers partially violated. These gates are declared in the structure VI.
Next wall goes to the precipice. Just before the cliff was another gate, the wall set back to back cliff. Another element of the defense were cave casemates on the western side of the cliff.
Anyone who will enter the fortress through the main tower, seeing the road that branches - one is straight, the other to the left, along the walls. This main street, gradually zarastaya turf, can be traced down to the southern gate.
During the quarter, building was not too dense, but farther up the tower and V to the southern gate, is a solid block of ruins. The fortress is quite clearly divided into public (official), and part of a residential block in the depths of the fortress. There were no large estates, but were very small houses, was crowded. On street corners here and there can be traced even triangular structure, where three streets converge.
here - a good view of the quarry where he worked on the legend of St.. Clement.