Chatyrdag At the foot of the cup is the central basin of the Crimean Nature Reserve, surrounded by mountains of the Black, Big and Little Scarecrow and ridge The ridge, This was a reserve for royal hunts, to the Emperor Alexander III built here beautiful hunting lodge. He stood in the middle of the meadow surrounded by mountains covered with huge beech trees, pines and oaks rustled below, forming a small waterfall, river Alma, originating at the source Savluh-soo ( "healthy water"). Its cool and tasty water in ancient times was considered a medicinal and ability to cure various diseases. Even in our time study conducted by the Odessa Institute of Spa, showed that the water source other than potassium, magnesium, manganese, lithium, and contains rare in natural sources of silver. Came here sick and suffering, to bathe in the water and be healed. Tradition connects this place with holy bessrebrenikami brothers, Cosmo and Damian.
holy martyrs and bessrebreniki brothers Cosmas and Damian were living in the III century in Rome. Their parents were rich and famous people and sought to give his sons a good education. For all sciences like brothers science of healing: they diligently studied the diseases of people, the healing properties of herbs and plants. The brothers decided to perform the commandment of God: "aching heal, cleanse the lepers, mertvyya revive, cast out demons; priyaste Thun, Thun give" (Matt. 10, 8). Lord blessed them and sent them to the intention of the special grace - medicine and healing. Sick people and animals recovered as soon as the saints Cosmas and Damian laid hands on them. Doctors did not take payment for their labor, by contrast, tried to help the poor. All legacy after his death, parents, give to the poor and disadvantaged. For that the brothers were called bessrebrenikami.
Saints Cosmas and Damian many people turned to Christianity. Starting treat, brothers doctors explained that healing comes from the omnipotent power of Christ, true God, which is passed through their hands. To defeat the disease, we must sincerely believe in Him. Patients believed and recovered.
But these were terrible times of persecution of Christians. At St. Cosmas and Damian told the pagan emperors Karina. He ordered his soldiers to seize the Christian doctors and judge. At that time the saints were in the estate of their parents. The soldiers began to question the inhabitants of Cosmas and Damian. Learning what danger threatens the saints, people began to ask them to take refuge in a cave and save lives for patients, eager to heal.
Warriors, not finding healers Christians, grabbed honorable men of this village and taken in chains to Rome. Then Cosmas and Damian came out of hiding, caught up with the soldiers and begged them to release the innocent, agreeing to go to the emperor.
At trial, Cosmas and Damian explained that no magic cure people, but by the power of Jesus Christ: "We serve the weak and the poor in the name of God. All of this made miserable by the word of Christ, means to make himself, and He commands us to: feed the hungry, give drink to thirsty, clothe the naked. Fulfilling this commandment, we hope to get a reward from him in the future infinite life of the kingdom of heaven, and do not want to work you heartless imaginary gods. They suggested that the emperor and to know the true God, but Karin has rejected their proposal, and threatened with terrible torments. Then the miracles, the Holy Spirit, said: "You turn away from true God, let thy face turn away from its place - shame on you." Here is a person of the emperor has changed, and twisting. The people saw it and believed in Christ and prayed to the saints of physicians to heal the Emperor, about the same, and prayed to the Emperor himself, saying: "I believe in Thee, O Lord Jesus Christ, true God, have mercy on me and did not remember the first of my ignorance". After these words the neck to fix it and the person fell into his place.
Saints Cosmas and Damian, with honors were sent home. They again went round the surrounding towns and villages, healing people of their ailments and paying the Gentiles to Christ.
But the doctor who has studied the saints, jealous of their fame and decided to kill him. He invited the brothers to go with him to the mountains to gather herbs. When Cosmas and Damian were scattered in different directions, the villain has attacked them and beat the stones one by one, and the body buried on the banks of the stream flowing nearby. So hit the holy martyrs Cosmas and Damian doctors. Church honors the memory of July 14.
Among the Crimean Tatars there was a belief that the saints have been killed and buried a little higher source of healing, near two of the same beech trees, similar to each other as twins. After washing in the spring, Crimean Tatars have always climbed the hill to the trees that served, in their opinion, tombstones saints.
documentary evidence on the presence of Saints Cosmas and Damian in Tauris not, but according to legend, it is believed that in the last years of life lived at the foot of miracles Chatyrdag, at the source, still bearing their names. It is said that long after their deaths, the local Tatar, who hated his wife, led her into the mountains, put out his eyes and left alone, away from home. For the unfortunate women who die of starvation, were two strangers to her man, saying that they were brothers, doctors, Cosmas and Damian, have brought it to power and told to wash in it. Then the woman returned to sight, and she returned to her village and told about the incident.
Perhaps in the Middle Ages, Christians built a temple at the source, but after the expulsion of Christians in 1788 all Crimean temples were abandoned and many disappeared. But for years people of different nationalities and religions to come to the curative power, wishing to gain health. Every year 1 (14), gathered here are Christians, priests, consecrated water, and served prayers. No buildings at that time was not here. Only in the 20 years of XIX century of the means of Countess Sophia Pototskaya at the source of the barn was built for the pilgrims.
Archbishop Innocent during his travels to sacred places of Crimea, visited the source of the saints Cosmas and Damian, hence he rose to the top of Chatyrdag. He reminded residents of the Orthodox, it is necessary to restore the monastery and Monuments of faith: "The ancient tradition of story, that these doctors and miracle workers visited once lit up the wonders of their own and with local Taurian Peninsula, being exiled here in the confinement of the Caesar of Rome. And among the mountains, your healing has hitherto source, named after the saints Cosmas and Damian, who izveden of the land, according to the same tradition, their prayers. Despite the great degree of cold water in it, pilgrims come there, drink this water and immersed in it for bathing, and served for many ailing healing. For it is not replenished by some Christians, but also the fans of Mohammed, praising the name of saints Cosmas and Damian ".
permit the opening of Kin was received in 1853. A new monastery on land belonging to the treasury dacha were dissociated 4 acres. But the arrangement of the monastery stood barely begun: it prevented the Crimean War. Not far from the monastery were built capacity of beech wood and stone. Construction of the monastery began after the war, in 1857.
first rector Cosmo-Damianovskoy monastery was the abbot Macarius (6 peace Michael Prutsky). During the Crimean War, the father Makarios was in military hospitals, where caring for the wounded and the sick, comforting and encouraging them to believe, communion and religious rites performed over the dead. During his service was awarded a hip. After the war his father Macarius returned to Bakhchisaraysky Dormition Skete, but soon he was assigned the honorable and difficult mission: a new device Cosmo-Domianovskoy Kin. September 10, 1857 Father Makarios was ordained iegumena and ruled the monastery for twenty years.
equip monastery proved to be really difficult. Kin was in a remote valley, steep slopes and high mountains, thick forest surrounded it on all sides. The terrain was rough, and to pave the roads and prepare a place for the construction, it was necessary to carry out major excavation work. The monks themselves stocking up wood for construction, on his shoulders brought building materials: brick, glass, tools, as well as from the road a good road to the monastery was not. Cosmo-Damianovsky monastery did not receive funds from the state, so the buildings were built on money from the donations of pilgrims in 1857 built the first wooden, small church in honor of Saints Cosmas and Damian on the drawing made by Archbishop Innocent. When the number of monks increased, its place in 1870 built a new large temple with a bell tower, which held all the monks of the monastery and pilgrims. However, in winter it is not heated, so in 1874 began construction of a new winter Church of the Transfiguration. July 1, 1862 Bishop Alexy solemnly approved the holy relics in the temple icon of St. Cosmas and Damian. The icon was a special place in the temple, near the choir, in front of her burning inextinguishable lamp.
precious and sacred healing spring attracted to the abode of worshipers, their donations were part of the income of the monastery. In general, life in the convent was difficult, not getting money from the state, the monks had to make yourself. Kin was located in the gorge, surrounded by mountains, so the light day was shorter by almost four hours. Income received from the monastery percent of bank deposits, the rental of land, held ceremonies on the purse and kruzhechnyh fees and donations, as the monks sell their manufactured icons, crosses and candles. Stable income is reported to exist comfortably allow a small number of monks: in the early years lived in the monastery of 10 people, their number gradually increased, and in the end of 80 years lived there 50 people. Abbot Macarius took the monastery all comers, but remained there only the most industrious.
Cosmo-Damianovskuyu Kin not once visited the members of the imperial family. In 1873 he visited the heir to the Russian throne, Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich. In October 1880 he again came here with his wife Empress Maria Feodorovna Princes. Visit Kin rulers and increased the number of pilgrims.
Unfortunately, after the death of Abbot Macarius priors in Kin began to change very often. First, the monastery was appointed monk Parfenov, from 31 May 1879 he was replaced by monk Basil, then in office monks visited Paul and Serapion. Frequent changes of leadership, lack of uniform requirements have led to the monks were lazy in the performance of their duties, the economy of the monastery began to decline. Poverty and filth deterred pilgrims, and the number of monks declined sharply. Time passed, but Kin nothing changed. Unfortunately, Dean of Spiritual Consistory failed to restore order. In the summer of 1899 visited the monastery of Bishop Nikolai. He decided to transform the monastery into the female. Bishop Nicholas argued and supported a woman's devotion, he believed that the monastery should maintain the spirit of Christ's love and carry it to the world. in monasteries with his help set up hospitals, schools, orphanages.
August 1, 1899 was the last time the brethren of the monastery celebrated the mass, the same day was consecrated the new iconostasis. The monks went to other monasteries of Crimea. The old monks, together with his father created the Macarius Monastery, parted with him with tears in his eyes, because everything here was done by their hands, for many years the monastery was their home.
first abbess of the female Cosmo-Damianovskogo monastery became a nun Trinity Paraskevievskoy abode Varsonofy, together with her for 25 nuns. Temporarily for the ministry submitted by monk Gury and ierodiakon Dosifej. Then they were replaced ieromonah Inkerman Monastery Clement and ierodiakon Korsun Monastery Anthony.
's Diligence and discipline, in a model wound Trinity Monastery Paraskevievskom , the sisters moved into a new abode. Despite the poverty, the economy has gradually improve. Fully refurbished buildings, resulted in the order of the convent, built a stone retaining walls, strengthened the terrace on which stood a church, the new cell, communion bread, bakeries, shops, laundries and other farm buildings. Clean and order induced in the monastery, again attracted pilgrims. In celebration of saints Cosmas and Damian is usually deserted monastery transformed. In G. Moskvich guide describes the event: "For a day or two in all directions to the monastery attracted faithful Christians. All kinds of carriages, phaeton, rulers, Mazhar, hearse and horse - singly and in groups rush to the monastery".
In the monastery appeared Theotokos "Jerusalem". On the back the inscription: "Holy Mount Athos - Earthly inheritance Queen of heaven. This icon has been preserved to our days and is now in the monastery.
In 1911 on October 25 visited the abode of Emperor Nicholas II. He prayed at the source and drinking holy water. In 1913, in honor of 300 anniversary of the Romanov dynasty was restored chapel at the source. At the same time created a 'protected areas of the Imperial hunting ", held Romanovskoye highway, is connected through the mountains Alushta to Yalta. In reserve from various districts of the country and from abroad have brought the rare animals. Then, in the mountain forests of the Crimea for the first time got mouflon, Ten animals came from the island of Corsica, and three - from Askania Nova. Mouflon aklimatizirovalis well, they are particularly fond of the place near the Black Mountains and Great Scarecrow.
After the establishment of Soviet power all monastic property and lands were nationalized. Problems in Cosmic Damianovskoy Kin began in 1922, first shut down farmstead in Simferopol, a church in the name of the Annunciation of the Mother of God gave free use of a group of believers, but in 1923 it also closed a warehouse and built the church property.
Then the turn and the monastery. Also in 1923 he decided to close, saying the following, "the monastery, being in an area equidistant from all the settlements with the Christian population, the religious needs of whom have never served, but only served to need nuns and novices. Mass visiting the monastery took place only once per year - July 12-14, and visited guided not so much religious needs, as traditional, based on an old legend about the healing power of the source in the courtyard of the monastery, although cases of healing were not observed since the founding of the monastery ".
In the former Cosmo-Damianovskom temple opened Museum of Natural History, in Church of the Transfiguration - club Crimean Nature Reserve, in the chapel with a spa for eventually arranged for the withdrawal of hatchery trout fry.
During the Great Patriotic War, all the buildings of the former monastery and the royal house were destroyed. Survived only a chapel of the holy source.
And in the monastery there was a real miracle. Icon with the relics of Saints Cosmas and Damian, who seemed lost in the liquidation of the monastery, was found. It has for many years was kept by a woman, who brought her clergyman cathedral Holy Trinity Cathedral father Alexis Sakhnenko. July 14, 1996 the icon again at the monastery.
Today you can visit the holy abode, drink clean water and pray to the saints Cosmas and Damian. From Cosmo-Damianovskogo monastery go on a spa town of Alushta. Alushta valley holds many shrines. In the I century along the coast of the Kerch in the Chersonese was Apostle Andrew. He stayed in the villages, talked about Christ and his faith in the caves and temples near sources arranged for the newly converted Christians. One such source has survived the name of the Holy Apostles. Source Ai-Andre, or Ai-Andre (Saint Andrew) is a mile from the village Generalskoye, in the river basin Ulu Uzen. Here in the Middle Ages there was a temple-basilica, built of local stone, arranged in such a way that the source revered giver of life, flowed from the altar, were inside the columns, one survived until the beginning of XX century. Local residents honored this place and come here even once in 1907 set the temple collapsed, turning it into ruins. In 2000, the altar of an ancient temple established cross
In place of modern Alushta in the VI century on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, the Greeks built a port and fortress. Practical traders and experienced sailors could not pass a cozy bay. From the fortress, which they called Aluston, to this day remained frayed round and square towers. Of course, built in Aluston and temples. The remnants of one such temple linked to rare archaeological event: the discovery of a rich treasure. In the 50 years of XX century alushtintsy decided to extend the embankment to make it more comfortable. This had to cut part of the hill on which the Middle Ages was a fortress.