Foros - holiday village on the southern coast of Crimea is known to many. Hundreds of vacationers each summer spend their holidays here, not far from the Foros dacha is the first president of the former Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, who still attend the country's leaders and high-ranking foreign visitors. But in recent years, many people come in Foros for a purpose: the believers - the sacred place of worship and pray, lovers of beauty - enjoy the masterpiece of architecture, which is the Church of the Resurrection, or the Foros church.
could hardly have chosen a more picturesque place for this small but amazingly beautiful churches: the red rock, separated from the main massif of the mountains, surrounded by thick green forest, gray ribbon curls down the road, and then - a boundless expanse of the sea, which merges with the horizon sky.
After opening in 1848 the road, which connected Yalta and Sevastopol, coastal areas are quickly snapping up the rich people. In the western part of the current Foros already in the 20-ies of the XIX century have names Tesseli, which was granted to General Shawl, hero of the Patriotic War of 1812. It was he who laid Forossky park, a monument of garden architecture. Later, bought the estate known chaepromyshlennik, a Moscow merchant of the first guild Alexander G. Kuznetsov (1855-1895). He built a mansion in the style of Russian classicism, which was not just a house, a temple of arts and creativity. The funds
AG Kuznetsov was built and the Foros church. Many legends are connected with the appearance of the church at Red Rock. One of them tells that the young daughter of a merchant Kuznetsova (in another version of his beloved) riding in the mountains. Suddenly the horse, as if afraid of something, the crew suffered directly into the abyss. Nothing could keep them furious pace, it seemed, death is inevitable. But at the very edge of the precipice horses stopped, as if to an invisible barrier. In honor of the miraculous salvation and church was built.
But this is just a beautiful legend. In the archival documents, we find a different version of the appearance of the temple, however, and it is linked to a miracle. October 17, 1888 at the station Borki in Kharkiv railway crashed the royal train. The royal family, returning from Yalta in St. Petersburg, remained unharmed. In memory of the miraculous salvation of the Emperor Alexander III and was built Church of the Resurrection.
work to establish a temple AG Kuznetsov has attracted the best professionals. The project was developed by Russian architect Academician NM Chagin in 1888. For the church architect, chose the most beautiful and convenient location: only two kilometers from Baidar gate, beside the road on the steep red rocks, the height of 400 meters, making the church very well visible from all sides.
built it in the Russian style in two tiers at the sides and a center - the domes of various sizes, making a total of nine. During the construction of the temple, a special technique of flat brick masonry - plinfy, walls lined with white Inkerman stone. Adorns temple patterned porch with a forward-upward bell tower, gilded crosses shine brightly in the sun. The columns with carved capitals, panels and window sills were made of marble kararrskogo. Sex adorned mosaic of the famous Italian master Antonio Salviati. The interior design of the church attracted the attention of carved oak with gilded iconostasis of the Holy Doors. Icons for the church wrote the famous Russian painters, A. Korzukhin, academician Sverchkov the icon of the Nativity of Christ "painted by C. Makovsky. The walls of the temple were decorated with Byzantine ornamentation.
Four years after laying the first stone church building completed. October 4, 1892 the church was consecrated bishop Tauric Martinianom the glory of the Resurrection. At the service attended by Chief Procurator of the Holy Synod of the KP Pobedonostsev. And after six years in the tenth anniversary of the miraculous deliverance of Tsar Alexander III on the death of a church attended by the Emperor Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra Feodorovna.
Resurrection of Christ - the most solemn event in church history. Jesus Christ was resurrected on the third day after His death on the cross and burial. The first news about the resurrection of Christ to hear from the angel sitting on a stone, before closing the entrance to the tomb, his wife bearing women. They saw the empty tomb of the Lord and lay there a shroud. The phenomenon of an angel rolled back the stone from the door, accompanied by an earthquake, which scattered deputed to guard the body of Christ guard. The same day, the risen Christ appeared to St. Peter and St. John the Theologian, then the two disciples, ready to Emmaus, and the eleven who had gathered in the room, doors that were closed. 40 days Christ conversed with His disciples, and a 40 day ascended into heaven.
Church of the Resurrection became a place of pilgrimage for believers, come here to pray, there were baptized, married, confessed and received communion several generations of inhabitants of the surrounding villages. The images were printed on the banks of the temple with the tea, which were produced by Kuznetsova and sold not only in Russia but also abroad. Then there were the numerous postcards that commemorated the different types Foros church, and she soon became a symbol of the Southern coast of Crimea.
But above all, the church became a center of spirituality, in this great merit of the first abbot of Father Paul Undolskogo. He led a broad educational work among the population of the surrounding villages. Thanks to his efforts at the temple was opened on parochial school, and in the neighboring village Mukhalatka - School of literacy. Father Paul was frequently visited by his friend - the writer Anton Chekhov, he helped in the construction of parochial schools in Mukhalatka.
In those years, this area of the Southern coast was thickly populated. In the vicinity of the church located Tatar and Russian villages, the Greek settlements. Foros The name comes from the Greek word "tribute", "fee".
After the 1917 revolution to the Russian church fell on hard times. The new government has started the struggle with religion. The doors of many churches and temples were closed for a long time. In the Foros church, which stands at a distance from large cities, a few years committed service, church life went on as usual, remaining in the stormy sea of life island of tranquility and peace. But the turn and up to her. In 1924 he was arrested and exiled priest Paul Undolsky. The temple was closed and tried to give it a "civil" form: stripped crosses, removed the bells from the belfry. By decision of the committee seized the church valuables: the vessels for worship, golden candlesticks, tabernacle, chandeliers, tore the precious vestments of the icons and the icons themselves works of famous masters have disappeared without a trace. In
Foros church was organized warehouse. Years passed. In villages Foros. Molasses, Muhalatka unfolded construction of sanatoria and boarding houses for visiting dignitaries. Foros Church, a small, elegant, located in a beautiful place, attracted the attention of the party bosses. For them, there opened a restaurant with dishes of the Tatar national cuisine: barbecue and chebureks. In the hall, where a few years ago, parishioners prayed to the Lord, set tables, and the place of the altar made a lunch counter. And this despite the fact that the official church was listed subsidiary of the regional museum, and, consequently, people had to save what they themselves had destroyed.
In 1927 in Crimea powerful earthquake, which damaged many houses and palaces of southern coast, including the famous Swallow's Nest. But the Foros church, standing almost on the edge of high cliffs, and the house Kuznetsova did not suffer, it seemed, wanted to preserve the nature beauty and holiness for the people.
During the Great Patriotic War Foros Church became the focus of fierce battles. The Nazis were eager to Sevastopol, but the pass gate Baydarskie their delayed detachment commander frontier AS Terletsky. Foros Church became an observation post for the soldiers and defenses. No one survived in these battles, killed all the soldiers of the detachment, but did not retreat. Martyred commander had: enemies crucified him on a tree. Church took the blows of the enemy, protecting the soldiers, who had taken refuge in it - traces of the enemy bullets wounds etched on its walls. During the occupation of people came to an empty, ruined church and prayed, asked for the granting of victory.
Heavy war years did not ruin the Foros church, but his fate after the war did not become easier. Here again, opened the restaurant, where guests were fed delicious food and drink Crimean wine.
In the 60's, it was built new, more convenient highway connecting the Yalta to Sevastopol. Foros Church turned to the side, it became less visited by tourists. Temple gradually decay and finally was closed, left to complete destruction. However, tourists continued to arrive and to keep a long memory of his visit, beating out the memory on pieces of marble window sills, panels, columns. Do not forget, they leave their autographs on the walls, described in detail when and who visited here. From breeding inside a building fire killed frescos, icons and ornaments, painted on the walls, seemed to have no cause to people dying church. Loses connection with God, desecrated the holy place running.
But, despite many years of atheistic education in the minds of Russian people alive desire for moral reflection on his life, the desire for faith. A symbol of faith is the House of God - the church. Maybe that's why in 1980 the inhabitants Foros defended the church and saved it from total destruction. After all, to address the Executive Committee and Mayor of Yalta the church and surrounding land were transferred to the construction of boarding KB Dnepropetrovsk Yuzhmashzavoda, "which ran at the time of Leonid D. Kuchma. Hath temple indifferent and care about the future of people, the insistence that the church was declared a monument of architecture of XIX century. However, they did not stop and demanded to restore Foros temple, to return him to former glory. It took seven years of activism: people knocking on the doors of high offices, wrote letters to newspapers, asked the state to allocate funds for the restoration of the temple. Finally in 1987 the state allocated money only on the external restoration. But it was necessary to restore the interior of the temple, comfortable territory.
villagers Foros, Eagle, Muhalatka at the general gathering decided that the temple should be returned to believers. In 1990, Resurrection Church was transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church Moscow Patriarchate. It was headed by a young monk Father Peter (in the world Vitaly Posadnev).
Temple was in a terrible waste: stripped bare walls here and there only under the high dome of preserved fragments of frescoes, leaky roofs, windows, laid with stones. But the revival has already started, and began to revive not only the Church but also of human souls. Local residents came to the rescue: they purged the church from debris, washed the floor. 3 June 1990 on the eve of the Holy Trinity first served for many years with a prayer vodosvyatiem and consecrated the temple.
In 1992, Foros Church celebrated 100 years. By the time a team of restorers has put new copper dome shone golden crosses, finished painting the inner altar and the dome, the stained glass windows inserted. Church of the Resurrection regained brass bell, put the team of restorers in the belfry. Among them was the bell in 1862 weighing 200 pounds. He remained at the lighthouse of Cape Sarich and was presented to the Church of the Black Sea Fleet. After 70 years again rang the church bells, ringing sound spread out over the forest, reached the coast, people in the surrounding villages heard the church bells, raising his head to the sky. Bells summoned parishioners to the holiday prayer service in honor of the century Foros church, which was conducted by the Archbishop of Simferopol and Crimea Lazar.
church transformed prettier - all white, bright, like skyrocketing. Especially good was the church look like a clear night, illuminated by powerful spotlights, it is clearly visible against the background of dark mountains, forests, starry sky. Many people began to visit the temple to admire its beauty and wonderful views from a height, an observation deck near the temple is rarely empty.
But the problems were still a lot. We had a central heating and plumbing, art restorers, under the leadership of VI Potravnova was to restore the interior painting of the church: to write an icon, a military decoration that once adorned the walls, and carved iconostasis make Kyoto. All domestic work planned to finish the 105 th anniversary of the temple in 1997. For
Foros church in Cherkassy masters have ordered a new iconostasis. August, decorated with wonderful carvings, he was made of oak from old models, new iconostasis, neatly packed in boxes, arrived in the Foros church 18 August 1997.
On the night of August 20 there was a terrible atrocity: Archimandrite Peter was killed by two robbers, who had hoped to get rich, by stealing the money collected for the iconostasis.
revived Foros Church on the right has become one of the wonders of the Crimea. Inside it is just as good as the outside. The walls are painted with floral ornament, light pours through the stained glass windows. Decoration of the church, without a doubt the iconostasis. Left shows the Mother of God, it seemed somewhat surprised or frightened, right sad face of Christ above the altar - The Last Supper. Near the iconostasis hanging plaque with the words: "This iconostasis was built in acceptable unto the memory of the selfless work of the temple abbot, Archimandrite Peter, murdered August 20, 1997".
A Foros Church continues to please us with its beauty, its doors remain open to all: the parishioners, pilgrims, tourists and lovers of beauty.