Balaclava - a place of unique beauty of nature and the richness of the historical past. The city is located in quaint bay, which connects to the sea by a narrow passage (in the old days, it blocked the thick chain).
From the sea, the bay is almost not visible, it's hidden rocky shore. Balaklava is in a deep depression, her house runs up up the rocky terraces. And soar above the city ruins of the ancient Genoese tower Cembalo. From Castle Mountain with a beautiful view: in the distance see the Cape Aiya, then breaks off into the sea ravine Shaitan-dere, right - the rock and the entrance from the sea into the bay, north bay itself is beautifully curled and stretched balaclava. And the sea, sea, sea ...
Every stone in the vicinity of Balaklava involved in its ancient history, legendary and myths. It is believed that the Balaklava Bay is described by Homer in the Odyssey, called Listrigonov bay. Here, in the surrounding mountains, looking for the ancient temple of the goddess Artemis (a brand name of Virgin), where she had a daughter of King Agamemnon, Iphigenia, replacing it with a sacrificial altar deer. With steep cliffs, on which stood a temple, offered sacrifices to the goddess by throwing in a sea of pilgrims, shipwrecked.
first of these lands have mastered the brands, then a convenient harbor attracted the Greeks, they called it Simvolon - Bay symbols or omens. The Romans founded a military base I Italinsky Legion and the sanctuary of Jupiter Dolihena. In the XIV century Genoese settled in Balaklava. At the top of the mountain, they built a fortress with a consular Cembalo castle, town hall and church. And in 1475 the Turks seized the Crimea, they renamed the fort Cembalo in Balik-SEE, which means "fish-nest. Indeed, residents of Balaklava has long been famous as skilled fishermen, as well as great winemakers. In the days of Turkish rule there lived on the overthrow of the Crimean khans, which the Turkish sultan are not obliged to come to Turkey.
in Balaklava bay in 1768-1774 years housed the first ships of the Russian fleet. Military naval base to remain here and in our day, a few years ago to Balaklava could not simply arrive. It was a closed zone, where there was a submarine base, which built the world's only underwater haven. In 1991, the base dismantled. Now, any time you can come to the ancient city of fishermen, and ourselves to view the ruins of the fortress, as well as one of the oldest Orthodox churches of the Crimea.
The date of its foundation have a few opinions. During the reconstruction of the church was found by building board mounted on the wall (such boards left in the Genoese masters built their buildings), on it the inscription: "1357, the day of September, it launched the construction of management during humble husband, Simon de Orto, Consul and castellan. This stone was hidden by a layer of plaster, so some researchers believe that if construction of the temple was used again. In 1864 the Bishop of Simferopol and the Tauride Hermogenes wrote: "As early as 1375 in Balaklava Church was built in the name of the Twelve Apostles. This same stone church built in 1794, but in the Crimean War was damaged by the enemy, and then resumed his parishioners and consecrated July 8, 1875 in the name of St. Nicholas. " It kept the banners and other relics of Balaklava Greek battalion. Church was first administered by the chief priest of the Armed Forces, and when in 1859 abolished the Greek battalion, it was transferred to the diocesan office. By St. Nicholas temple were attributed to other churches Balaklava: Chapel of the Holy Trinity and in the name of the Prophet Elijah, the church in honor of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross Church, built in 1903 the means Spiridon Gina and an ancient church in the name of the Holy Apostles. Church of the Holy Apostles, built on an ancient cemetery was closed in 1924 and dismantled in the 40-ies. From him were only a chapel and part of the apse.
During the Soviet authorities closed the church of St. Nicholas and made a first Pioneers, and then the club and Osoaviakhim. Only in 1990 he was again transferred to the Church. Kiev architect Yu Lositskiy drafted its restoration. The temple is a unique monument of architecture of XVIII century, according to many experts, this architectural type not found in plants of the Crimea and its neighboring regions. It represents chetyrehstolpnuyu cross-domed building of limestone quarry. West entrance decorated portico, consisting of four Doric columns and triangular pediment, carved out of white Inkerman limestone. The temple is small in volume, but nonetheless magnificent. Inside, there is no painting, but in previous centuries, they may have adorned its walls. Load-bearing columns, Doric, too, staring up, and create an impression of grandeur.
While were being restored, services were held in a small room in the courtyard, which holds about 30 people. The temple was renovated in 1990, works by Archimandrite Augustine (then Archpriest Alexander) and consecrated on July 13 in the name of the Twelve Apostles, the first time in many years under its vaults resound to this day the words of prayer. Now the church is metochion Inkerman St. Clement Monastery . Here are stored the precious relics - the holy relics of St. Sergius of Radonezhsky and St. Basil the Blessed.
In the Greek villages in the vicinity of Balaklava, also built temples, they are not all preserved, destroyed ruthless time or soulless people. But in the village Fleets (formerly called Karan) in the central square stands a temple in the name of the kings of Saints Constantine and Helen, built in the Middle Ages. Bishop Hermogenes, described it: "The Church of stone, a small, built by the Greeks as far back as 1775 in the name of the kings of Saints Constantine and Helen, on leaving the Greeks in 1779 in Mariupol, it more than 60 years stood in ruins, and in 1841 was fixed, but in the Crimean War was ruined after the war and again fixed his parishioners and consecrated in 1856; temple icon of Saints Constantine and Helen Kings in a silver chasuble belonged to the former Balaklava Greek battalion. Prikhozhan 197 souls ».
Soviet era was for this short time the temple destruction and desecration. After the closure of the church, first organized a club, then cinema. Resumed temple was labor and care Archimandrite Augustine (Polovtsian), who has made a lot of strength to the Sevastopol on the ground once again revived the ancient temples and monasteries. Temple of the Kings Saints Constantine and Helen assigned to Balaklava St. George monastery .
current s Defense used to be a Greek village Camara. On its outskirts have long been struck from the ground sacred spring, which bears the name of St. John the Baptist and Baptist. In the Middle Ages was located near the ancient settlement, a source close to the Chapel was built. Eventually she collapsed. These places during the trip to the Crimea, visited Reverend Innocent, Archbishop of Kherson and Tauride. He wrote: "The Chapel of St. John the Baptist is arranged above the source, near the road leading from Baydarskaya valley in Sevastopol and Balaklava. This place is also to be respected by the whole neighborhood, and a freewill offering to him of the Orthodox people, especially the neighboring Greeks, so wrought, that one can only arrange a number of small cells, that went fine Kin ».
Perhaps later the chapel was restored as a "reference book Tauris diocese" for 1910 states that the chapel in the name of fair Beheading of John the Baptist was attributed to the Church of the Holy Great Martyr Marina in the village of Kamara. To the holy places have not forgotten the way even during the persecution of the church. Holy places, regardless of the time, keep yourself in the grace of God. At present, the memory of the days of John the Baptist at the source to perform prayer vodosvyatiem.