Situated south of Livadia Oreanda, formerly of Great estate. Walk in Oreanda from Livadia possible for the solar path that was laid in 1861 and was called the Imperial.
Oreanda differs from its neighbor Livadia rocky landscapes: from the sea rises Mast rock slightly to the right bower - Cross, and above them proudly raised their heads Mount Ai-Nikola, white and wild cliff Hachla-Kayasy. The sheer cliffs, deep ravines, azure sea have created the unique beauty of these places.
Once in place there Oreanda Greek settlement. On the Mount of the Cross the remains of a medieval feudal castle and a small Christian church at the edge of the cliff.
History of the Church of the Protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary, began long before its appearance. In 1818 and 1825 on the southern coast of Crimea has visited the Russian Emperor Alexander I. He liked the land Oreanda, here he wanted a rest from the difficult burden of power and the intention to build a palace for his wife Elizabeth Alexeyevna, who was often ill and was forced to winter in the south. But, a cold, Alexander I suddenly died. Oreanda became the name of the new Emperor Nicholas I, who gave it to his wife Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. The royal family first visited Oreanda in September 1837, at the same time it was decided to build a palace in the style of Roman villas. September 30, before leaving the Crimea, the Empress Alexandra, along with Count M. Vorontsov climbed the mountain, which the Tartars called Uryanda, and set atop a wooden cross. Later the cross was replaced by cast iron with holes for illumination. The name of the mountain has changed, it became known as the Cross.
Project developed a professor at St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, the architect Andrei Ivanovich Stackenschneider (1802-1865). Palace laid in 1843, construction was carried out with the active participation of the architect K. Eshlimana (1808-1893), and was completed in 1852. Luxurious palace surrounded by a beautiful park. Famous gardeners Delinger and Kebah, using exotic and local species of plants, to recreate the landscapes around the world. The park decorated with fountains, one of which was arranged directly in the hollow of a huge oak tree, waterfalls and pools, follow the contours of the southern seas of Russia: the Black, Azov, Caspian and Aral. Perhaps the only thing it lacks - a temple, so the worship went on the royal path in Livadia Krestovozdvizhenskaya Church .
After the death of Emperor Nicholas I, the estate was inherited his second son of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich (1827-1892). The Grand Duke was very fond of these places. But participation in public affairs is not allowed to see much in the Crimea estate. His wife and children enjoyed a summer here. The tragic death of Tsar Alexander II in 1881 and affected the careers of Konstantin Nikolayevich: faithfully served two emperors - his father and brother - Prince was out of work under the new monarch. It would seem, that's a great opportunity to implement long-held desire: to live in Oreanda. But in 1882 the palace was burnt down, as it was established "because of careless handling of cigarettes, child domestics servants. On the restoration of the palace required a large sum of money, which the Grand Duke did not have. Sadness emanates from his lines: "From Mother, I received a beautiful palace, it is no longer, to restore it I'll never be able to. Let the remnants of his ye build the temple of God. " Grand Duke himself chose the site for future church. The name for the future of the church, too, chose the Grand Duke himself. He decided to name it in honor of his favorite holiday - Protection of the Blessed Virgin.
This holiday was established in memory, the vision of the Virgin of St. Andrew in Vlaherna church in Constantinople. In 910, the Byzantine Empire fell to the Turks and besieged the capital of the empire. The people gathered in the temple, where he kept a robe of the Virgin with omophorion and part of the belt. Among the congregation was blessed Andrew Christ for the sake of a holy fool, along with his disciple Epiphanius.
Help the Mother of God was not slow to follow - the enemy retreated from the city. In honor of this event in Russia in the XII century by Prince Andrew Bogolyubsky installed holiday. And in 1165 he built a temple of the Intercession on the Nerl. In Moscow, too, is the Cathedral of the Protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary, but to us it is better known as St. Basil's Cathedral. In Russia, had the sort of attitude to the Virgin Mary, as Mediatrix, which has always defended and mercy and the people and the whole country that has passed through the ordeal.
Temple Grand Prince planned to be built in the Georgian-Byzantine style, which, in his opinion, more suited to the harsh, rocky terrain Oreanda. By the construction of the temple, he invited the best specialists. The project has developed a renowned architect AA Avdeev. The Church decided to build near the Admiral's house, around which grew big oaks. To orient the apse of the temple strictly to the east, it was necessary to cut down several trees. But the Grand Duke wanted to keep the mighty giants, so the altar of the temple in Oreanda slightly turned to the southeast.
for the construction of the church used the stones from which was built the palace. The temple has a small, cruciform shape, with a dome. Miraculous bells listened with pleasure to the Emperor Alexander III and Nicholas II.
Solemn Consecration of the Church of the Protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary took place in 1885. This church has become a favorite child of Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich, in its creation, he invested part of his soul, and rightfully proud of his creation.
Church in Oreanda different abundance of mosaics decorate the walls, the dome of the sails of the temple.
Unfortunately, most of the mosaics Protection Church and Oreanda not survived to our days. Almost completely destroyed the image of the Protection of the Virgin and nine icons. Miraculously preserved image of the Savior, eight of the apostles, eight angels, four evangelists, located in the dome and the sails of the temple, Byzantine ornament and two panels "Christmas" and "The Resurrection of Christ" that adorn the west wall.
After the death of Konstantin Nikolayevich Oreanda passed to his sons. In 1894 Oreanda become imperial possessions, it was purchased by the Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich, heir to the throne, Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich. The new Emperor Nicholas II and his family came to the Pokrovsky temple on holy days, he liked to walk in the park, enjoy the beauty of rocks, to reflect on the seashore.
Temple in Oreanda visited Chekhov. The heroes of his story "The Lady with the Dog" - Gurov and Anna - are wondering about eternity and life.
After the Revolution, the temple survived many difficult days and almost died. Church was closed in 1924. She transferred to OHRIS (Committee for Museums and Monuments of art, antiquities, folk life and nature), and then the Office of the Livadia Palace. At the remarkable mosaic murals came to see sightseers, entry cost only 10 kopeks. In 1927, the building slightly damaged by the earthquake, in the sanctuary of a crack, but, of course, no one repaired. Since the church tried to reset the cross, but were unable to derail, it broke at the base. Part of the Cross are now preserved in the temple as a precious heirloom.
After the war in Oreanda begins construction of the sanatorium, one after another, building of new housing. Obviously, a small church, according to the architects, did not fit into the modern look Oreanda. Therefore, in the early 60-ies it was decided to demolish. Temple, with such love when something was built and decorated, was on the verge of death. Stepped in local lore, people who are not indifferent to their land and its history. They have ensured that the temple of the Protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary was declared a monument of architecture, what was written in the secret letter. More than thirty years it was stored chemicals, and in the church yard depot was located.
building heavily damaged by landslides and demanded the restoration. It began after the return of the church of the Orthodox Church. This happened in 1992 for the feast of the Annunciation. Parishioners have a temple in order, and to celebrate Pentecost, the first time in 70 years, it served the Divine Liturgy.
And in 2001 near the church built a belfry. In Donetsk, in the LLC "Corner-M poured fine bell weighing 603 pounds. Over his production took some work to specialists. To the voice of the bell sounded nice, reminded of the old, antiquated methods used for the oven, the fire which kept firewood. At the top of the bell is written: "This bell was presented to the servants of God, Alexander and Anatoly in summer 2001 from the Nativity in the temple of the Protection of the Mother of God in Oreanda. The bell is decorated with four stamps, which depicted the Lord Almighty, Protection of the Blessed Virgin, St. Nicholas and the great martyr Panteleimon the Healer.
In memory of Catherine Day, December 7, the bell was strengthened at the Belfry. A January 4, 2002, Archpriest Father Nikolai Donenko hallowed bell and bell tower. A few days later, on its roof installed beautiful openwork cross the Kiev artist Oleg Radzevica. Great help in this matter has Yalta Charitable Fund "Nadezhda».
So, thanks to the traditions of living in people's memory, and the people, preserving them in Oreanda new voice of the bell.